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Welcome to the Nemeth Braille Searchable Database!

Introduction

The purpose of this database is to allow individuals to look up Nemeth symbols and math related terms, using the words a student is used to hearing. These symbols and terms are listed after this introduction. Once you have found the symbol or term in the list (see Instructions for additional keystrokes to help you navigate the database), select that particular link, which will take you to a description of how the symbol, expressions, or equations are written in Nemeth code. At the end of the description, you will find three additional links to examples in Nemeth code. The first link takes you to a Braille Ready File (BRF) that includes samples using Nemeth code in English Braille American Edition (EBAE). The second link takes you to a BRF file that includes samples using Nemeth code within Unified English Braille (UEB) contexts. The third link takes you to a Microsoft Word document that includes samples in print and Simulated Braille (SimBraille), which adds shadow dots that can help sighted readers. We will continue to build this database and would welcome any comments or suggestions you might have for improving this database.

Sara Larkin, Susan Osterhaus, and Tina Herzberg

List of Symbols and Math Terms

Definitions

Absolute Value

Absolute Value is represented by a vertical bar (dots 1-2-5-6) on each side of a number or expression. The numeric indicator is not used inside grouping symbols such as the vertical bars representing absolute value. Note: the vertical bar is the same as the "ou" contraction. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Alpha (lowercase)

Alpha is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent an angle measure. To write Alpha in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "a" (dot 1). When writing this immediately after a trigonometric function such as sin, cos, tan, csc, sec, or cot, include a space before the Greek letter indicator. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Angle brackets

Angle brackets are a type of grouping symbol. They are commonly used when writing vector notation in component form. The opening angle bracket is dots 4-6 written twice in front of dots 1-2-3-5-6. The closing angle bracket is dots 4-6 written twice in front of dots 2-3-4-5-6. The numeric indicator is not used inside grouping symbols such as the angle brackets. See vectors for more Nemeth code related to vectors. The sample document includes vector notation as well as the angle brackets used in component form. Note: the "of" contraction is used after the two cells of dot 4-6 for the opening angle bracket and the "with" contraction is used after the two cells of dot 4-6 for the closing angle bracket. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Antiderivative

The antiderivative of a function is denoted by the capital letter of that function name followed by the letter x in parentheses. The opening parenthesis is dots 1-2-3-5-6 and the closing parenthesis is dots 2-3-4-5-6. Note: the opening and closing parentheses are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Arcs

Arcs are denoted using the five step rule. Step 1: Begin with the multipurpose indicator (dot 5). Step 2: Write the expression being modified, which should be two capital letters for a minor arc or three capital letters for a major arc. The capitalization indicator must be placed before each capitalized letter since each letter represents a separate point. Step 3: Write the directly over indicator which is dots 1-2-6. Step 4: Write the modifier which is the arc symbol. It is the shape indicator (dots 1-2-4-6) followed by the letter a (dot 1) for arc. Step 5: Write the termination indicator which is dots 1-2-4-5-6. Note: the directly over indicator is the same as the "gh" contraction. Think "high" which also uses the "gh" contraction. The termination indicator is the same as the "er" contraction which is used in the word "termination." See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Beta (lowercase)

Beta is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent an angle measure. To write Beta in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "b" (dots 1-2). When writing this immediately after a trigonometric function such as sin, cos, tan, csc, sec, or cot, include a space before the Greek letter indicator. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Binomial coefficient

The binomial coefficient which is used in probability and the binomial theorem is written with parentheses and read "n choose r" where n and r are two numbers written vertically in print. Remember the open parenthesis is dots 1-2-3-5-6 and the closing parenthesis is dots 2-3-4-5-6. The directly under indicator (dots 1-4-6) is also used in this notation. This is used between the numbers that appear on the first line and the second line in print. Note: the opening and closing parentheses are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions. The directly under indicator is the "sh" contraction. Think of the word "shallow" which has the "sh" contraction as being a way to put something under (or in a shallow position to) something else. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Braces, also known as curly brackets

Braces, sometimes called curly brackets, are a type of grouping symbol. They are used as a third level of parentheses or for set notation. The opening brace is dots 4-6 in front of dots 1-2-3-5-6. The closing brace is dots 4-6 in front of dots 2-3-4-5-6. The numeric indicator is not used inside grouping symbols such as braces. Note: the opening and closing indicators after the dots 4-6 are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Brackets

Brackets are a type of grouping symbol. They are used as a second level of parentheses or for the integer function. Note that brackets are not always used in pairs. The closing right bracket is commonly used in the process of calculating definite integrals in calculus. The opening bracket is a dot 4 in front of dots 1-2-3-5-6. The closing bracket is a dot 4 in front of dots 2-3-4-5-6. The numeric indicator is not used inside grouping symbols such as brackets. Note: the opening and closing indicators after the dot 4 are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Combinations

Combinations which are read n choose r can be written several different ways. Method 1: capital c followed by n comma r inside a set of parentheses which are dots 1-2-3-5-6 and dots 2-3-4-5-6. Method 2: capital c followed by the subscript indicator (dots 5-6) n comma r. Method 3: subscript indicator (dots 5-6) n capital c r. If r is a number, no subscript is needed before it, but if it is a variable, the subscript indicator is needed before it. Method 4: parentheses with r below n. Remember the opening and closing parentheses are dots 1-2-3-5-6 and dots 2-3-4-5-6 respectively. The directly under indicator (dots 1-4-6) is also used in this notation. This is used between the first line which represents n and the second line which represents r. Note: the opening and closing parentheses are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions. The directly under indicator is the same as the "sh" contraction. Think of the word shallow which has the "sh" contraction as being a way to put something under (or in a shallow position to) something else. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Curly d

The curly d which is represents the partial derivative is often used in notation for calculus. To write this in Nemeth code, write dot 4 followed by the letter d (dots 1-4-5). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Definite integral

The definite integral is an integral over a certain interval. It starts with the integral sign which is dots 2-3-4-6. Then it is followed by a subscript indicator (dots 5-6) and the starting value of the interval. Next is the superscript indicator (dots 4-5) and the ending value of the interval. Finally the baseline indicator (dot 5) followed by the function and then dx. On occasion, the interval values are directly over or directly under instead of just raised and lowered. In this case the five step rule is used which starts with the multipurpose indicator (dot 5) and ends with the termination indicator (dots 1-2-4-5-6) instead of the baseline indicator. Also the directly under indicator (dots 1-4-6) is used instead of the subscript indicator and the directly over indicator (dots 1-2-6) is used instead of the superscript indicator. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Degrees (used in angle measure and temperature in Celsius/Centigrade or Fahrenheit)

Degrees can be used to specify an angle or arc measure, to write degrees Fahrenheit, and to write degrees Celsius or Centigrade. The degree symbol is actually three cells long. It begins with the superscript indicator (dots 4-5), since it is raised, followed by the two-cell hollow dot symbol (dots 4-6 and then dots 1-6). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Delta (lowercase)

Delta is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent a small change in the value of a variable in calculus. To write Delta in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "d" (dots 1-4-5). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Delta (uppercase)

Delta is a Greek letter. The uppercase form of Delta is most often used to represent the change in something. To write Delta in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) followed by the capital indicator (dot 6) and then by the letter "d" (dots 1-4-5). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Derivative of y with respect to x (using raised numbers after the first derivative)

The derivative of y with respect to x is written as a simple fraction which starts with an opening fraction indicator (dots 1-4-5-6) followed by "dy", then uses the slash (dots 3-4) followed by "dx", and finishes with the closing fraction indicator (dots 3-4-5-6). For the 2nd, 3rd, or other derivatives of y with respect to x, the superscript indicator (dots 4-5) is used to raise the 2, 3, etc. along with the baseline indicator (dot 5) after the 2, 3, etc. This superscript is placed between the d and the y in numerator and after the dx in the denominator. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Derivative of f of x (using prime)

The derivative of a function f of x or the derivative of y is written using prime which looks like an apostrophe and is written as a dot 3 which is the same as an apostrophe. The second derivative repeats the dot 3 for the second prime. For subsequent derivatives use the superscript indicator (dots 4-5) followed by the number representing the level of derivative. If anything follows this number other than a space, insert the baseline indicator (dot 5). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Empty set (also known as null set)

The empty set, or null set, can be written as a set of braces with a space between them or as a circle with a line through it. If writing it as a set of braces, the opening brace is dots 4-6 in front of dots 1-2-3-5-6. The closing brace is dots 4-6 in front of dots 2-3-4-5-6. Note: The "of" and "with" contractions are used after the dots 4-6 for the opening and closing braces. If writing the empty set as a print zero with a line through it, use a dot 4-5-6 in front of a zero (dots 3-5-6). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Enlarged braces (used for systems of equations, compound functions, or piecewise functions)

Enlarged braces are used when writing systems of equations, compound functions, or piecewise functions. To enlarge braces, just place a dot 6, as if it is capitalized, between the dots 4-6 and the opening or closing cell which are dots 1-2-3-5-6 and dots 2-3-4-5-6 respectively. This set of three cells is written at the beginning and/or end of each line it pertains to. Note: The "of" and "with" contractions are used after the dots 4-6, dot 6 for the opening and closing braces. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Enlarged brackets (used for matrices)

Enlarged brackets are used when writing matrices. To enlarge brackets, just place a dot 6, as if it is capitalized, between the dot 4 and the opening or closing cell which are dots 1-2-3-5-6 and dots 2-3-4-5-6 respectively. This set of three cells is written at the beginning and/or end of each line it pertains to. Note: The "of" and "with" contractions are used after the dot 4, dot 6 for the opening and closing braces. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Enlarged parentheses

Enlarged parentheses can be used in place of large brackets when writing matrices. To enlarge parentheses, just place a dot 6, as if it is capitalized, in front of both the opening parenthesis (dots 1-2-3-5-6) and closing parenthesis (dots 2-3-4-5-6). Note: the opening and closing parentheses are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions respectively. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Enlarged vertical lines (used for determinants)

Enlarged vertical lines are used when writing determinants. To enlarge vertical lines, just place a dot 6, as if it is capitalized, before the vertical line (dots 2-3-5-6). This set of two cells is written at the beginning and end of each line it pertains to. Note: the vertical line is the same as the "ou" contraction. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Epsilon (lowercase)

Epsilon is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent an arbitrarily small positive quantity in calculus. To write Epsilon in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "e" (dots 1-5). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Exponent, also known as superscript or power (which sometimes uses a baseline indicator)

The superscript indicator (dots 4-5) is used to represent exponents, powers, or raised characters such as degree. It is used after the base and before the actual raised character or exponent. If something comes after the exponent other than a space, a baseline indicator (which is dot 5) must be used after the exponent. If a space comes after the exponent, no baseline indicator is needed. If an exponent is raised to another exponent, the superscript indicator is used twice instead of once before the second exponent. The same indicator is used to represent a raised number such as in the notation for an inverse function which is the letter f followed by the superscript indicator and then a negative one. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Five step rule

The five step rule is as follows. Step 1: Begin with the multipurpose indicator (dot 5). Step 2: Write the expression being modified. If these are capital letters representing points, the capitalization indicator must be placed before each capitalized letter since each letter represents a separate point. Step 3: Write the directly over indicator (dots 1-2-6) or the directly under indicator (dots 1-4-6). Step 4: Write the modifier which is what is written directly over or under. Step 5: Write the termination indicator (dots 1-2-4-5-6). Note: the directly over indicator is the same as the "gh" contraction. Think "high" which also uses the "gh" contraction or "shallow" which uses the "sh" contraction. The termination indicator is the same as the "er" contraction which is used in the word "termination." See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Function notation

Function notation starts with a letter that represents the function name and then uses parentheses around the independent variable used in the function. The opening parentheses is dots 1-2-3-5-6 and the closing parentheses is dots 2-3-4-5-6. Note: the opening and closing parentheses are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Gamma (lowercase)

Gamma is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent an angle measure. To write Gamma in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "g" (dots 1-2-4-5). When writing this immediately after a trigonometric function such as sin, cos, tan, csc, sec, or cot, include a space before the Greek letter indicator. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Greek letters (used for angle measure)

The Greek letters most commonly used as variables that represent angle measure are alpha, beta, gamma, theta, and phi. Pi is also used to represent a particular angle measures in radians. All of these letters are lowercase and have dots 4-6 in front of the letter(s) it represents. Alpha represents a, beta represents b, gamma represents g, theta represents th and uses the "th" contraction, phi represents f, and pi represents p. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Greek letters (complete list)

Any letters of the Greek alphabet begin with dots 4-6 to identify it as a Greek letter. All lowercase letters begin with the dots 4-6 and are followed by the letter(s) it represents. All uppercase letters will still begin with the dots 4-6 followed by the capital indicator (dot 6) and then by the letter(s) it represents. The following Greek letters use a contraction to represent multiple letters: eta uses the contraction "wh" (dots 1-5-6), theta uses the contraction "th" (dots 1-4-5-6), and chi uses the contraction "and" (dots 1-2-3-4-6). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Indexed radical or root (also known as nth root)

The indexed root, nth root, or indexed radical are used to indicate roots other than the square root (which is the same as the 2nd root.) The index is assumed to be two for a square root, but is explicitly stated for all other roots. For example, the index of the third root, also known as the cube root, is three. This index is placed between the index-of-radical indicator (dots 1-2-6) and the radical symbol (dots 3-4-5). Then write what you are taking the root of without using any numeric indicators. Finally, finish or terminate the root with the termination indicator (dots 1-2-4-5-6). If the problem has a nested radical or a radical inside of another radical, then a dots 4-6 is placed in front of the index-of-radical indicator and termination indicator for the inner radical. Two dots 4-6 cells are placed in front of a 3rd level radical, three dots 4-6 cells are placed in front of a 4th level radical, etc. This should always be placed in front of both the index-of-radical indicator and termination indicator corresponding to that particular square root. Note: the index-of-radical indicator is the same as the "gh" contraction, the radical indicator is the same as the "ar" contraction, and the termination indicator is the same as the "er" contraction which is used in the word "termination." See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Infinity

The infinity symbol is written using dot 6 followed by the full cell (dots 1-2-3-4-5-6). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Barred brackets (used for ceiling, floor, and integer functions)

The integer function is one of three types. The general integer function uses the opening bracket (dot 4, dots 1-2-3-5-6) followed by x and then a closing bracket (dot 4, dots 2-3-4-5-6). The greatest integer function, also known as the floor function, is represented with a special form of brackets that includes only the lower part of the bracket. The lower left bracket is dot 4, dots 5-6, dots 1-2-3-5-6 and the lower right bracket is dot 4, dots 5-6, dots 2-3-4-5-6. The least integer function, also known as the ceiling function, is represented with a special form of brackets that includes only the upper part of the bracket. The upper left bracket is dot 4, dots 4-5, dots 1-2-3-5-6 and the upper right bracket is dot 4, dots 4-5, dots 2-3-4-5-6. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Integral

The integral, or indefinite integral, starts with the integral sign which is dots 2-3-4-6. Then it is followed by the function and ends with dx. For the second integral or double integral, the integral sign is just repeated. The integral sign continues to be repeated for any subsequent integrals. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Lambda (lowercase)

Lambda is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent wavelength. To write Lambda in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "l" (dot 1-2-3). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Lines

Lines are denoted using the five step rule. Step 1: Begin with the multipurpose indicator (dot 5). Step 2: Write the expression being modified which should be two capital letters. The capitalization indicator must be placed before each capitalized letter since each letter represents a separate point. Step 3: Write the directly over indicator (dots 1-2-6). Step 4: Write the modifier which is the two-way arrow symbol. It is the shape indicator (dots 1-2-4-6) followed by dots 2-4-6, dots 2-5, dots 2-5, dots 1-3-5. Step 5: Write the termination indicator (dots 1-2-4-5-6). Note: the directly over indicator is the same as the "gh" contraction. Think "high" which also uses the "gh" contraction. The termination indicator is the same as the "er" contraction which is used in the word "termination." See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Number systems

The different number systems are represented by uppercase letters. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Omega (lowercase)

Omega is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent an angular velocity. To write Omega in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "w" (dots 2-4-5-6). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Parentheses (basic)

Parentheses are grouping symbols that have a beginning and an ending often called an opening and a closed parentheses. The opening parentheses (dots 1-2-3-5-6) is the beginning of the grouping while the closing parentheses (dots 2-3-4-5-6) is the end of the grouping . The numeric indicator is not used inside grouping symbols such as parentheses. For parentheses that occur over more than one line, see enlarged parentheses. Note: the opening and closing parentheses are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions. Parentheses are always used when writing function notation which is written f(x) and read "f of x". e samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Parentheses (used with combinations and the binomial coefficient)

The binomial coefficient which is used in probability and the binomial theorem is written with parentheses and read "n choose r" where n and r are two numbers written vertically in print. Remember the open parenthesis is dots 1-2-3-5-6 and the closing parenthesis is dots 2-3-4-5-6. The directly under indicator (dots 1-4-6) is also used in this notation. This is used between the numbers that appear on the first line and the second line in print. Note: the opening and closing parentheses are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions. The directly under indicator is the "sh" contraction. Think of the word "shallow" which has the "sh" contraction as being a way to put something under (or in a shallow position to) something else. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Partial derivative

The partial derivative, sometimes called the curly d, is often used in notation for calculus. To write this in Nemeth code, write dot 4 followed by the letter d (dots 1-4-5). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Permutations

Permutations which are read n permutation r can be written several different ways. Method 1: capital p followed by n comma r inside a set of parentheses which are dots 1-2-3-5-6 for the opening and dots 2-3-4-5-6 for the closing. Note: the opening and closing parentheses are the same as the "of" and "with" contractions. Method 2: capital p followed by the subscript indicator (dots 5-6) n comma r. Method 3: subscript indicator (dots 5-6) n capital p r. If r is a number, no subscript is needed before it, but if it is a variable, the subscript indicator is needed before it. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Phi (lowercase)

Phi is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent an angle measure. To write Phi in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "f" (dot 1-2-4). When writing this immediately after a trigonometric function such as sin, cos, tan, csc, sec, or cot, include a space before the Greek letter indicator. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Pi (lowercase)

Pi is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent an angle measure in radians. It is also the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter and is equal to approximately 3.14. To write Pi in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "p" (dots 1-2-3-4). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Power, also known as exponent or superscript (which sometimes uses a baseline indicator)

The superscript indicator (dots 4-5) is used to represent exponents, powers, or raised characters such as degree. It is used after the base and before the actual raised character or exponent. If something comes after the exponent other than a space, a baseline indicator (which is dot 5) must be used after the exponent. If a space comes after the exponent, no baseline indicator is needed. If an exponent is raised to another exponent, the superscript indicator is used twice instead of once before the second exponent. The same indicator is used to represent a raised number such as in the notation for an inverse function which is the letter f followed by the superscript indicator and then a negative one. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Prime

Prime can be used to represent feet, transformations, or to represent the derivative of a function. Either way it is written using as a dot 3 which is the same as an apostrophe since it looks like an apostrophe in print. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Rational numbers (as fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals)

Rational numbers (as fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals) are any numbers that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, a numerator p and a non-zero denominator q. Examples and non-examples are given in a variety of ways in the sample documents. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Rays

Rays are denoted using the five step rule. Step 1: Begin with the multipurpose indicator (dot 5). Step 2: Write the expression being modified which should be two capital letters. The capitalization indicator must be placed before each capitalized letter since each letter represents a separate point. Step 3: Write the directly over indicator (dots 1-2-6). Step 4: Write the modifier which is the right or left arrow symbol. It is the shape indicator (dots 1-2-4-6) followed by dots 2-5, dots 2-5, dots 1-3-5 for the right arrow or dots 2-4-6, dots 2-5, dots 2-5 for the left arrow. Step 5: Write the termination indicator (dots 1-2-4-5-6). Note: the directly over indicator is the same as the "gh" contraction. Think "high" which also uses the "gh" contraction. The termination indicator is the same as the "er" contraction which is used in the word "termination." See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Segments

Segments are denoted using the five step rule. Step 1: Begin with the multipurpose indicator (dot 5). Step 2: Write the expression being modified which should be two capital letters. The capitalization indicator must be placed before each capitalized letter since each letter represents a separate point. Step 3: Write the directly over indicator (dots 1-2-6). Step 4: Write the modifier which is the horizontal bar (dots 1-5-6). Step 5: Write the termination indicator (dots 1-2-4-5-6). Note: the directly over indicator is the same as the "gh" contraction. Think "high" which also uses the "gh" contraction. The termination indicator is the same as the "er" contraction which is used in the word "termination." See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Sigma (lowercase)

Sigma is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent the standard deviation in statistics. To write Sigma in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "s" (dots 2-3-4). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Sigma (uppercase)

Sigma is a Greek letter. The uppercase form of this letter is often used to represent the summation operator for a series. To write Sigma in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) followed by the capital indicator (dot 6) and then by the letter "s" (dots 2-3-4). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Square root

Square root uses the radical symbol (dots 3-4-5) to start the square root and uses the termination indicator (dots 1-2-4-5-6) to end or terminate the square root. If the problem has a nested square root or a square root inside of another square root, then a dots 4-6 is placed in front of the "ar" and "er" signs for the inner square root. Two dots 4-6 cells are placed in front of a 3rd level radical, three dots 4-6 cells are placed in front of a 4th level radical, etc. This should always be placed in front of both the "ar" and the "er" corresponding to that particular square root. Note: the radical symbol is the same as the "ar" contraction which is used in the word "square" and the termination indicator is the same as the "er" contraction (dots 1-2-4-5-6) which is used in the word terminate. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Subscript (which sometimes uses a baseline indicator)

The subscript indicator (dots 5-6) is not always used to represent a subscript. It is not used when it follows a variable (letter) or a function name such as "log" and the subscript is a number. In these special cases, just write the letter immediately followed by the number with no numeric indicator. When this special case does not apply, use the subscript indicator before the subscript and the baseline indicator (dot 5) after the subscript if something other than a space follows the subscript. There is still no numeric indicator used within the subscript itself. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Superscript, also known as exponent or power (which sometimes uses a baseline indicator)

The superscript indicator (dots 4-5) is used to represent exponents, powers, or raised characters such as degree. It is used after the base and before the actual raised character or exponent. If something comes after the exponent other than a space, a baseline indicator (which is dot 5) must be used after the exponent. If a space comes after the exponent, no baseline indicator is needed. If an exponent is raised to another exponent, the superscript indicator is used twice instead of once before the second exponent. The same indicator is used to represent a raised number such as in the notation for an inverse function which is the letter f followed by the superscript indicator and then a negative one. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Theta (lowercase)

Theta is a Greek letter. The lowercase form of this letter is often used to represent an angle measure. To write Theta in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the contraction "th" (dot 1-4-5-6). When writing this immediately after a trigonometric function such as sin, cos, tan, csc, sec, or cot, include a space before the Greek letter indicator. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in print and SimBraille

Vectors

Vectors are denoted using the five step rule. Step 1: Begin with the multipurpose indicator (dot 5). Step 2: Write the expression being modified which should be two capital letters or one lowercase letter. If capital letters are used, the capitalization indicator must be placed before each capitalized letter since, in this case, each letter represents a separate point. Step 3: Write the directly over indicator (dots 1-2-6). Step 4: Write the modifier which is the vector symbol. It is the shape indicator (dots 1-2-4-6) followed by dots 2-5, dots 2-5, dot 4, dots 1-3-5. Step 5: Write the termination indicator (dots 1-2-4-5-6) Note: the directly over indicator is the same as the "gh" contraction. Think "high" which also uses the "gh" contraction. The termination indicator is the same as the "er" contraction which is used in the word "termination." See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Vertical bar

The vertical bar (dots 1-2-5-6) can be used for absolute value, such that, and magnitude, length, or norm of vectors. Absolute Value is represented by a vertical bar on each side of a number or expression. Double or single vertical lines on each side of a vector are used to represent magnitude, length, or norm of vectors. A single vertical line is used to represent the words "such that," for example in set notation. The numeric indicator is not used inside grouping symbols such as the vertical bars representing absolute value. Note: the vertical bar is the same as the "ou" contraction. See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille

Wavelength

Wavelength is often represented by the lowercase Greek letter Lambda. To write Lambda in Nemeth code, begin with a Greek letter indicator (dots 4-6) and then write the letter "l" (dot 1-2-3). See samples: Nemeth in EBAE, Nemeth within UEB contexts, or Nemeth in Print and SimBraille